The paper calendering process produces a smooth, tight paper surface to accommodate print writing and aesthetics. Calendering is defined as the pressure and friction experienced when a plastic web travels between two or more adjacent nips. Its effect on the web is to change the surface properties and gloss.
1. Paper calendering is a mechanical process that compresses the web and improves surface properties, so calendering reflects the quality standards of the papermaking and coating process.
2. Calendering consists of three elements: pressure, paper and paper roll related deformation and temperature；
3. The efficiency of calendering is a rough balance between the responsiveness of the coated paper and the total amount of calendering provided. The responsiveness of the coated paper is predetermined by the characteristics of the paper and its coating；
4. The total amount of paper and/or coating properties that can withstand calendering is limited. Exceeding the limit, calendering usually results in a decrease in quality and corresponding loss of printability；
5. Coating performance is the sum of the internal properties of the paper itself plus the external properties of the coating；
6. Of the many variables encountered in the production of calendered paper, only five variables have an effect on controlling calendering: pressure, moisture, speed, temperature, and roller structure；
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